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Flutter Testing

What is Flutter?

Flutter is a free and open-source mobile application development framework created by Google. It was released in 2017 and has gained popularity among developers due to its ability to build high-performance, visually appealing, and native-like apps for multiple platforms, including iOS, Android, web, and desktop, using a single codebase.

Flutter uses the Dart programming language, which was also developed by Google, and provides a rich set of pre-built widgets and tools that make it easy for developers to create beautiful and functional apps. The framework uses a reactive programming model.

One of the key advantages of Flutter is its hot reload feature, which allows developers to make changes to their code and see the results instantly in the app without needing to rebuild it from scratch. This helps to speed up the development process and enables developers to iterate quickly.

Flutter also comes with a powerful set of tools for debugging and testing, including support for unit tests, integration tests, and UI tests. This helps developers to ensure that their apps are bug-free and perform well on all platforms.

Flutter framework testing

The following are the primary types of testing that can be performed using the testing framework:


Before conducting any level of testing, there are a few pre-requisites that need to be followed for testing Flutter:
  • Add test or flutter_test dependency in pubspec.yaml file
    sdk: flutter
  • Create a test file with a file name ending with _test.
    For example, to test a class validatecreds.dart, we need to name the test file validatecreds_test. Dart. The test file should be placed in the test folder located at the root of your Flutter application or package.
  • Create a class to test.
    For example, to test class validatecreds.dart, we need to create and place the class file in lib folder located at the root of your Flutter application or package.
    The folder structure should be as shown below:
  • Write a test for the class.

Unit Testing

Unit testing is a technique where individual units or components of a software application are tested in isolation from the rest of the system. The purpose of unit testing is to validate that each component of the application is functioning as intended and to catch any defects or bugs early in the development cycle. Following the TDD approach for writing unit tests is a great practice in Flutter.

In Flutter, app unit testing can be performed at:
  • Code level
  • Widget Level

Below is an example of unit testing at code level:

Suppose we have a simple function that adds two numbers and returns the result. Here's an example of a unit test for this function in Flutter:
dartCopy code
int addNumbers(int a, int b) {
  return a + b;

void main() {
  test('adds two numbers', () {
    expect(addNumbers(2, 3), equals(5));
    expect(addNumbers(-2, 3), equals(1));
    expect(addNumbers(0, 0), equals(0));

In this example, we define an addNumbers function that takes two integer arguments and returns their sum. We then define a test case using the test function provided by the flutter_test package. The test case checks that the addNumbers function returns the expected result for three different input pairs.

Below is an example of unit testing at the widget level:

Suppose we have a simple widget that displays a greeting message to the user. Here's an example of a unit test for this widget in Flutter:
dartCopy code
import 'package:flutter/material.dart';
import 'package:flutter_test/flutter_test.dart';

void main() {
  testWidgets('displays greeting message', (WidgetTester tester) async {
    await tester.pumpWidget(GreetingWidget(name: 'John'));
    final greetingFinder = find.text('Hello, John!');
    expect(greetingFinder, findsOneWidget);

class GreetingWidget extends StatelessWidget {
  final String name;

  GreetingWidget({required this.name});

  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return Text('Hello, $name!');

In this example, we define a GreetingWidget class that takes a name argument and displays a greeting message with the name in a Text widget. We then define a test case using the testWidgets function provided by the flutter_test package. The test case uses the pumpWidget method to render the GreetingWidget with a specified name and then checks that the expected greeting message is displayed by searching for a Text widget with the expected text using the find.text function. The expect function then verifies that the Text widget is found exactly once using the findsOneWidget matcher.

Integration testing

Integration testing is a software testing technique that tests the interactions and interfaces between different modules or components of a software system. The purpose of integration testing is to ensure that the individual modules of the system work together as expected and to catch any defects or issues that may arise due to the interaction between different parts of the system.

In the case of Flutter apps, integration testing can be done in the following ways:
  • Using HTTP tests to perform integration testing at the API layer
  • Integration testing can be performed at the user interface level (which can also be part of E2E testing)
  • Integration testing can be performed at the database layer

Pre-requisites for integration testing

  • We need to add two packages in the dev dependencies section in the pubspec.yaml file.
            sdk: flutter
            sdk: flutter
  • We need to group flow using 'group' keyword
  • We cannot create integration tests in the 'test' folder. We need to create a folder with the name 'integration_test' where our integration scripts will be placed.
  • For API, we need to:
    • Add http client package in dependencies section in pubspec.yml.
              sdk: flutter
          http: 0.13.4
    • Add mockito and build_runner dependency in pubspec.yaml.
              sdk: flutter
          mockito: ^5.1.0
          build_runner: ^2.1.10

Example of an integration test on the API level

Suppose we want to validate a response for an API which should return a list of books. This means we need to create an API test class called fetch_books_test.dart.

Sample code test class fetch_books_test.dart:

Using @GenerateMocks([http.Client]), mockito understands the HTTP client needs to be mocked for the test class.

After creating a Mock Client, we must inject the mockClient into the fetchBooks(mockClient) method. We can then initialize Mock Client in the setUp() method, which will be used in test cases repeatedly. Anything we would like to do before the test can be specified in setUp().

We can use tearDown() method to close the mockClient once all test cases are executed. Anything we decide to do after the test, can be specified in the tearDown() method.

For more details on API integration testing, refer here.

Example of an integration test on the UI level

Suppose we want to test the interaction between Login and Home screen for the HRMS app for testing the scenario 'if username and password are correct, the user is navigated to Home Screen' then the code looks like below:

Sample integration_test:

We use 'IntegrationTestWidgetsFlutterBinding', which ensures the integration flow among all the components in the group in the test class.

Example of an integration test on the database level

Flutter has two necessary packages to work with databases:
  • sqflite - to access and manipulate SQLite database
  • firebase_database - to access and manipulate NoSQL databases from Google
Here's a sample database test:

End-to-end testing

E2E testing (also called system testing) evaluates the functionality of an entire system or application from start to finish. The goal of end-to-end testing is to ensure that all components of the system are working together as intended and that the application performs as expected under various real world scenarios.

The entire system is tested during an end-to-end test, including its integration with external systems and data sources. This type of testing is usually performed after unit testing and integration testing have been completed. The end-to-end test is the final step in the testing process before the software is released to users.

Various testing tools can be used to perform E2E testing on Flutter apps. Some examples are:

Flutter Framework

E2E testing can be implemented in the same way as explained in the UI integration testing section for Login flow.

Selenium and Appium

You can use Selenium WebDriver for Flutter web testing, and Appium for Flutter iOS and Android testing. Refer here.


testRigor is most effective in performing E2E testing for Flutter mobile apps. There's no programming language dependency since testRigor is a codeless AI-driven tool - which means that even manual QA testers can comfortably own the process of creating, editing, and maintaining any test cases. The speed of test creation is up to 15x faster compared to Selenium or Appium, and the test maintenance issue is basically obliterated.

testRigor advantages:
  • Shared suite can be used to perform parallel testing of the app on both iOS and Android platforms.
  • Any UI change in the app can be easily tested since it supports visual testing with tools like Applitools.
  • API tests can also be performed using testRigor. Refer here.
  • Can be easily integrated with tools like JIRA, TestRail, most CI/CD tools, etc.
  • Extremely easy to implement and use.
  • Maintenance is up to 95% less compared to other e2e tools.
  • Uses plain English language for creating test cases.
  • Test execution speed is highly optimized.

Below is the test implementation for 'Login and verify an employee's timesheet for September by employee ID' for the HRMS app.

enter “[email protected]” into “Username”
enter “password” into “Password”
click on “Login”
check that page contains “Welcome to HRMS”
click on “Timesheet”
check that page contains “Employee Details”
check that table “Employee Details” at row “2” and column “Action” contains link “12451”
click on “12451”
check that page contains “Month: September Total hours worked: 160”

testRigor provides a very effective way of interacting with forms and tables. You can refer to cells in a table with the intersection of rows and columns.

How to do End-to-end Testing with testRigor

Let us take the example of an e-commerce website that sells plants and other gardening needs. We will create end-to-end test cases in testRigor using plain English test steps.

Step 1: Log in to your testRigor app with your credentials.

Step 2: Set up the test suite for the website testing by providing the information below:

  • Test Suite Name: Provide a relevant and self-explanatory name.
  • Type of testing: Select from the following options: Desktop Web Testing, Mobile Web Testing, Native and Hybrid Mobile, based on your test requirements.
  • URL to run test on: Provide the application URL that you want to test.
  • Testing credentials for your web/mobile app to test functionality which requires user to login: You can provide the app’s user login credentials here and need not write them separately in the test steps then. The login functionality will be taken care of automatically using the keyword login.
  • OS and Browser: Choose the OS Browser combination on which you want to run the test cases.
  • Number of test cases to generate using AI: If you wish, you can choose to generate test cases based on the App Description text, which works on generative AI.

Step 3: Click Create Test Suite.

On the next screen, you can let AI generate the test case based on the App Description you provided during the Test Suite creation. However, for now, select do not generate any test, since we will write the test steps ourselves.

Step 4: To create a new custom test case yourself, click Add Custom Test Case.

Step 5: Provide the test case Description and start adding the test steps.

For the application under test, i.e., e-commerce website, we will perform below test steps:

  • Search for a product
  • Add it to the cart
  • Verify that the product is present in the cart

Test Case: Search and Add to Cart

Step 1: We will add test steps on the test case editor screen one by one.

testRigor automatically navigates to the website URL you provided during the Test Suite creation. There is no need to use any separate function for it. Here is the website homepage, which we intend to test.

First, we want to search for a product in the search box. Unlike traditional testing tools, you can identify the UI element using the text you see on the screen. You need not use any CSS/XPath identifiers.

For this search box, we see the text “What are you looking for?” So, to activate the search box, we will use the exact text in the first test step using plain English:
click "What are you looking for?"

Step 2: Once the cursor is in the search box, we will type the product name (lily), and press enter to start the search.

type "lily"
enter enter

Search lists all products with the “lily” keyword on the webpage.

Step 3: The lily plant we are searching for needs the screen to be scrolled; for that testRigor provides a command. Scroll down until the product is present on the screen:

scroll down until page contains "Zephyranthes Lily, Rain Lily (Red)"

When the product is found on the screen, testRigor stops scrolling.

Step 4: Click on the product name to view the details:

click "Zephyranthes Lily, Rain Lily (Red)"

After the click, the product details are displayed on the screen as below, with the default Quantity as 1.

Step 5: Lets say, we want to change the Quantity to 3, so here we use the testRigor command to select from a list.

select "3" from "Quantity"
After choosing the correct Quantity, add the product to the cart.
click "Add to cart"

The product is successfully added to the cart, and the “Added to your cart:” message is displayed on webpage.

Step 6: To assert that the message is successfully displayed, use a simple assertion command as below:

check that page contains "Added to your cart:"

Step 7: After this check, we will view the contents of the cart by clicking View cart as below:

click "View cart"

Step 8: Now we will again check that the product is present in the cart, under heading “Your cart” using the below assertion. With testRigor, it is really easy to specify the location of an element on the screen.

check that page contains "Zephyranthes Lily, Rain Lily (Red)" under "Your cart"

Complete Test Case

Here is how the complete test case will look in the testRigor app. The test steps are simple in plain English, enabling everyone in your team to write and execute them.

Click Add and Run.

Execution Results

Once the test is executed, you can view the execution details, such as execution status, time spent in execution, screenshots, error messages, logs, video recordings of the test execution, etc. In case of any failure, there are logs and error text that are available easily in a few clicks.

You can also download the complete execution with steps and screenshots in PDF or Word format through the View Execution option.

testRigor’s Capabilities

Apart from the simplistic test case design and execution, there are some advanced features that help you test your application using simple English commands.

  • Reusable Rules (Subroutines): You can easily create functions for the test steps that you use repeatedly. You can use the Reusable Rules to create such functions and call them in test cases by simply writing their names. See the example of Reusable Rules.
  • Global Variables and Data Sets: You can import data from external files or create your own global variables and data sets in testRigor to use them in data-driven testing.
  • 2FA, QR Code, and Captcha Resolution: testRigor easily manages the 2FA, QR Code, and Captcha resolution through its simple English commands.
  • Email, Phone Call, and SMS Testing: Use simple English commands to test the email, phone calls, and SMS. These commands are useful for validating 2FA scenarios, with OTPs and authentication codes being sent to email, phone calls, or via phone text.
  • File Upload/ Download Testing: Execute the test steps involving file download or file upload without the requirement of any third-party software. You can also validate the contents of the files using testRigor’s simple English commands.
  • Database Testing: Execute database queries and validate the results fetched.

testRigor enables you to test web, mobile (hybrid, native), API, and desktop apps with minimum effort and maintenance.

Additional Resources


The article above provides an overview of the types of technologies and tools that can be used to create a robust and efficient testing framework. Implementing such a framework can help maximize ROI, ensure high-quality deliverables, and provide the best possible user experience for customers.

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