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Selenium with Java Cheat Sheet

Driver Initialization

Chrome WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
Firefox WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();
Edge WebDriver driver = new EdgeDriver();
Safari WebDriver driver = new SafariDriver();

Locating Elements

By ID: driver.findElement(By.id (<element ID>))
By Name: driver.findElement(By.name(<element name>))
By Class Name: driver.findElement(By.className (<element class>))
By Tag Name: driver.findElement(By.tagName (<html tag name>))
By CSS Selector: driver.findElement(By.cssSelector("Tag#Value of id attribute"))
By XPath: driver.findElement(By.xpath (“//input[@type='submit']”))
By Link Text: driver.findElement(By.linkText (<link text>))
By Partial Link Text: driver.findElement(By.partialLinkText (<link text>))


@BeforeSuite Will run before the execution of all the test methods in the suite
@BeforeTest Will execute before the execution of all the test methods of available classes belonging to that folder
@BeforeClass Will execute before the first method of the current class is invoked
@BeforeMethod Will execute before each test method runs
@Test This is the main part of our automation script where we write the business logic we want to automate
@AfterMethod Will execute after the execution of each test method
@AfterClass Will execute after the execution of all the test methods of the current class
@AfterTest Will execute after the execution of all the test methods of available classes belonging to that folder
@AfterSuite Will execute after the execution of all the test methods in the suite


@Test Represents the method or class as a test block, also accepts parameters.
@Before The method with this annotation gets executed before all the other tests.
@BeforeClass The method with this annotation gets executed once before class.
@After The method with this annotation gets executed after all the other tests are executed.
@AfterClass The method with this annotation gets executed once after class.
@Ignore It is used to ignore certain test statements during execution.
@Disabled Used to disable the tests from execution, but the corresponding reports of the tests are still generated.

Working with Files

Upload a file:

Read data from a text file:

Using BufferedReader:
FileReader reader = new FileReader(“MyFile.txt”);
BufferedReader bufferedReader = new BufferedReader(reader);
String line;
while ((line = bufferedReader.readLine()) != null) {
Using InputStream:
FileInputStream inputStream = new FileInputStream(“MyFile.txt”);
InputStreamReader reader = new InputStreamReader(inputStream, “UTF-16”);
int character;
while ((character = reader.read()) != -1) {
  System.out.print((char) character);
Using FileReader:
FileReader reader = new FileReader(“MyFile.txt”);
int character;
while ((character = reader.read()) != -1) {
  System.out.print((char) character);
Read data from a CSV file:
mport au.com.bytecode.opencsv.CSVReader;
String path = “C:\\Users\\Myuser\\Desktop\\csvtest.csv”;
Reader reader = new FileReader(path);
CSVReader csvreader = new CSVReader(reader);
List<String[]> data = csvreader.readAll();
for(String[] d : data){
  for(String c : d ){
Read data from an Excel file:
import org.apache.poi.hssf.usermodel.HSSFSheet;
import org.apache.poi.hssf.usermodel.HSSFWorkbook;
import java.io.File;
import java.io.FileInputStream;
import java.io.IOException;
File file = new File(“E:\\TestData\\TestData.xls”);
FileInputStream inputStream = new FileInputStream(file);
HSSFWorkbook wb=new HSSFWorkbook(inputStream);
HSSFSheet sheet=wb.getSheet(“STUDENT_DATA”);
HSSFRow row2=sheet.getRow(1);
HSSFCell cell=row2.getCell(5);
String address= cell.getStringCellValue();

Selenium Navigators

Navigate to a URL driver.get("<URL>") or driver.navigate().to("<URL>")
Refresh the page driver.navigate().refresh()
Navigate forward in browser history driver.navigate().forward()
Navigate back in browser history driver.navigate().back()

Working with Windows

Get the current window handle:
String mainWindowHandle = driver.getWindowHandle();
Get all window handles:
import java.util.Set;
Set<String> allWindowHandles = driver.getWindowHandles();
Switch to a specific window:
String windowHandle = driver.getWindowHandle();
Switch to newly created window:
Close the current window:
Set window position:
driver.manage().window().setPosition(new Point(0, 0));
Maximize window:
Minimize window:
Fullscreen window:
Take a Screenshot
import org.apache.commons.io.FileUtils;
File scrFile = ((TakesScreenshot)driver).getScreenshotAs(OutputType.FILE);
FileUtils.copyFile(scrFile, new File("./image.png"));

Working with Frames

Switch to a frame by name or ID:
Switch to a frame by index:
Switch to a frame using a WebElement:
WebElement iframe = driver.findElement(By.cssSelector("#modal>iframe"));
Switch back to the main content:

Working with Alerts

Switch to an alert:
Alert alert = driver.switchTo().alert();
Enter text in an alert:
Retrieve alert text:
String text = alert.getText();

Selenium Operations

Launch a Webpage:
driver.get("<URL>") or driver.navigate().to("<URL>")
Click a button:
WebElement searchButton = driver.findElement(By.name("btnK"));
Accept an alert pop-up:
driver.switchTo( ).alert( ).accept();
Print the page title:
String title = driver.getTitle();
Implicit wait:
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;
driver.manage().timeouts().implicitlyWait(30, TimeUnit.SECONDS);
Explicit wait:
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;

WebElement firstResult = new WebDriverWait(driver, Duration.ofSeconds(10))
Thread.sleep(<Time in MilliSeconds>);
Clear the input field text:
WebElement searchInput = driver.findElement(By.name("q"));
Disable a field (set the ‘disabled’ attribute):
JavascriptExecutor javascript = (JavascriptExecutor) driver;
String todisable = "document.getElementsByName('fname')[0].setAttribute('disabled', '');";
Enable a field (remove the ‘disabled’ attribute):
JavascriptExecutor javascript = (JavascriptExecutor) driver;
String toEnable = "document.getElementsByName('fname')[0].setAttribute(enabled, '');";

Selenium Grid

Start the hub
java -jar selenium-server-standalone-x.y.z.jar -role hub
Start a node
java -jar selenium-server-standalone-x.y.z.jar -role node -hub

Alternative: write tests without a single line of code

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Selenium test:

Same test in testRigor:

check if page contains “Welcome Peter"

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