- Reviewing software requirements and specifications to understand the scope of testing.
- Creating and executing test cases that cover various scenarios, both positive and negative, to validate software functionality.
- Identifying and reporting bugs and issues in the software.
- Working closely with developers to resolve defects and ensure that they are properly fixed.
- Collaborating with the QA team to determine testing strategies and approaches.
- Participating in software testing and product release processes, including regression testing, integration testing, and acceptance testing.
- Keeping up to date with new software features, changes in technology and testing methodologies.
The job requires strong attention to detail, good analytical and problem-solving skills, and the ability to think creatively to design effective test cases. A manual QA tester must also have excellent communication skills, as they need to work closely with developers, product managers, designers, and other team members.
Manual QA Interview Questions:
What experience do you have in manual testing?
Answer: I have been working in manual testing for [insert number of years]. During this time, I have worked on various projects, ranging from simple to complex systems. I have hands-on experience in creating and executing test cases, documenting defects, and working with developers to resolve them.
What is the difference between QA and Testing?
Answer: Quality Assurance refers to the overall process of ensuring the quality of a product, while testing refers to the specific activities of evaluating the product against its requirements. Testing is a part of QA but not the entire process.
Can you explain the software development life cycle (SDLC)?
Answer: SDLC is a series of steps that software developers follow to create a software product. SDLC typically includes these phases: Requirements gathering and analysis, Design, Development, Testing, Deployment, and Maintenance. The testing phase is when manual QA testers get involved in the process to validate the software and ensure that it meets the specified requirements and is free of defects.
Can you explain the software testing life cycle (STLC)?Answer: STLC defines the testing process of an application. It includes the following steps:
- Requirements analysis: understanding the requirements and specifications of the application.
- Test planning: creating a test plan that outlines the testing methodologies, techniques, and tools that will be used.
- Test design: designing test cases to validate the functionality of the application.
- Test execution: executing test cases and reporting any issues found.
- Defect reporting and tracking: reporting bugs and tracking their resolution.
- Test closure: evaluating the results of the testing process and documenting the findings.
What is the importance of creating test cases?
Answer: Test cases serve as a blueprint for testing and help ensure that all aspects of the software are thoroughly tested. They help to identify any defects in the software and ensure that the software meets the specified requirements. Test cases also serve as a reference for regression testing and help to track the progress of testing.
What is a test scenario?
Answer: A test scenario is a high-level description of a test case. It describes the overall flow of the testing process, including the various conditions and variables that need to be tested.
What is the difference between a test case and a test scenario?
Answer: A test case is a detailed set of steps that a tester will follow to validate the product, while a test scenario is a high-level description of the testing process.
How do you determine the test coverage for a particular software application?
Answer: To determine the test coverage for a particular software application, you need to first identify all the functionalities in the application. Then, you need to create test cases that cover all the functionalities, both positive and negative scenarios. You can then compare the number of test cases created to the total number of functionalities, and this will give you an idea of the test coverage for the application.
What is regression testing? How is it important?
Answer: Regression testing is a type of testing that is performed after making changes to the software to ensure that the changes do not cause any unintended effects on the existing functionalities. Regression testing is important because it helps verify that the software continues to work as expected even after changes have been made to it.
How do you prioritize testing when you have limited time?
Answer: When faced with limited time for testing, prioritization is key. To prioritize testing, you need to consider the risk associated with each functionality and the impact that a defect in that functionality would have on the software. High-risk functionalities should be tested first, followed by medium-risk functionalities, and finally, low-risk functionalities.
Can you explain the difference between functional and non-functional testing?
Answer: Functional testing is testing the software to ensure that it works as per the specified requirements, while non-functional testing is testing the software for its performance, scalability, security, and other non-functional requirements.
What is the difference between positive and negative testing?
Answer: Positive testing is testing the software to ensure that it works as expected, while negative testing is testing the software to ensure that it fails gracefully in case of unexpected inputs or conditions.
What is the difference between smoke and sanity testing?
Answer: Smoke testing is a quick test to ensure that the most important functionality of the software is working, while sanity testing is performed after a small change or bug fix has been made to the software. Sanity testing is a more focused and limited form of testing compared to smoke testing, as it’s performed on a small subset of the software’s functionality.
What are the most important qualities for a manual QA tester to have?
Answer: A QA tester should have attention to detail, strong problem-solving skills, good communication and collaboration skills, a strong understanding of software development processes, and the ability to adapt to changing requirements and technologies.
Can you describe a challenging testing scenario you faced and how you dealt with it?
Answer: There is no right or wrong answer here. The goal of this question is to assert whether the person had previously faced any tricky cases, and how they managed to solve them.
Can you explain how you design test cases and determine test coverage?Answer: When designing test cases, I follow the following steps:
- Review the requirements and specifications of the software.
- Identify the critical and high-risk areas of the software.
- Create test cases based on different scenarios, both positive and negative, that cover the critical and high-risk areas.
- Document the test cases and include information such as the objective, steps to perform the test, and expected results. To determine test coverage, I use different techniques, such as coverage analysis, and risk-based testing, to ensure that all the important functionalities of the software have been tested and that there are no significant gaps in the test coverage. The goal is to achieve comprehensive coverage while also balancing the effort and resources required to perform the testing.
What tools and techniques do you use for bug reporting and tracking?
Answer: There is no right or wrong answer here. The goal of this question is to assert if the person is familiar with various tools needed to perform testing.
How do you ensure that software releases meet the required quality standards?
Answer: We follow a structured approach that involves creating and executing test cases as early as possible, identifying and reporting defects, collaborating with development teams, and regularly monitoring the progress of the project. I also adhere to industry best practices for software testing and quality assurance, and actively participate in code and design reviews to catch any potential issues early in the development process.
Can you describe your experience with Agile software development methodologies?
Answer: I have experience working in Agile environments, including Scrum and Kanban methodologies. I have participated in sprint planning, daily stand-up meetings, and restrospectives. I understand the importance of collaboration, frequent delivery, and continuous improvement in Agile software development.
Can you explain the importance of risk-based testing and how you would approach it?
Answer: Risk-based testing is a method of prioritizing tests based on the potential risks associated with a particular feature or functionality. The goal is to identify and focus testing efforts on the areas of the software that pose the greatest risk to the business, ensuring that the most critical issues are addressed first. In my approach to risk-based testing, I would first analyze the software requirements and identify potential risks, such as security vulnerabilities or performance bottlenecks. Then, I would prioritize the tests based on the level of risk and allocate more resources and time to the higher-risk areas. Thus I will ensure that the most important issues are addressed first and that limited testing resources are used effectively.
How do you ensure that software is accessible and usable for people with disabilities?
Answer: I follow industry standards such as the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) and ensure that the software is tested using assistive technologies, such as screen readers, to identify and resolve any accessibility issues. I also work with design and development teams to incorporate accessibility considerations into the software development process from the very beginning.
What do you consider to be the most critical aspect of software testing?
Answer: The most critical aspect is thorough and comprehensive testing coverage to ensure that the software meets all its functional and non-functional requirements, and that any potential bugs or defects are discovered and addressed before the software is released to the market.
Can you describe your experience with mobile app testing?
Answer: I have extensive experience in testing mobile applications on both Android and iOS platforms. I have worked with a variety of mobile devices and testing tools, and I have a deep understanding of the unique challenges and considerations involved in mobile app testing, such as compatibility with different screen sizes and operating systems, performance, and usability. I have also been involved in the testing of both native and hybrid mobile apps.
Can you explain how you would test a REST API?
Answer: I would start by identifying the requirements and understanding the functionality of the API. Then, I would create test cases to validate the API’s functionality, including positive and negative test cases to check for expected and unexpected behaviors. I would also check for proper error handling and validate the API’s response codes, data format, and data consistency. Additionally, I would use tools such as Postman to send API requests and verify the responses.
Can you describe your experience with database testing?
Answer: I have experience with database testing, including designing and executing test cases to validate the data storage and retrieval processes, ensuring data accuracy and integrity, and working with SQL queries to validate data in the database.
How do you work with developers to resolve defects and ensure that they are properly fixed?
Answer: When working with developers to resolve defects, I first clearly communicate the issue, provide relevant details and documentation, and then collaborate with them to find the root cause of the problem. I then verify the fix and make sure that it meets the quality standards and requirements before marking the defect as resolved. This approach helps to ensure that the defects are properly fixed and prevents reoccurrence in the future.
Can you explain the importance of test documentation and how you maintain it?
Answer: Test documentation is important in software testing as it serves as a record of the testing process and results. It helps to ensure that the tests are repeatable and provides valuable information for future reference. To maintain test documentation, I follow best practices such as regularly updating the test cases and test results, using a version control system to keep track of changes, and ensuring that the documentation is easily accessible and readable for all stakeholders.
How do you prioritize and manage your testing tasks and responsibilities?
Answer: I create a detailed testing plan that outlines the scope, objectives, and timeline for each task. I also regularly communicate with my team and stakeholders to understand their priorities and adjust my testing plan accordingly. I use project management tools such as Trello, Jira, or Asana to track my progress, ensure deadlines are met, and maintain visibility into my testing tasks. Additionally, I prioritize high-risk and high-priority tasks and make sure to allocate adequate time and resources to ensure their successful completion.
Can you explain how you would test a new feature or functionality in a software product?
Answer: I would first thoroughly review the requirements and specifications to understand what the feature is supposed to do. I would then create a comprehensive test plan that outlines the testing approach, test cases, and expected results. Next, I would perform various tests to verify that the feature is working as intended, including functional testing, compatibility testing, and performance testing. Throughout the testing process, I would document any bugs or issues that I find and work with the development team to resolve them. Finally, I would document the test results and present them to the stakeholders.
Can you explain how you would test a chatbot or conversational interface?
Answer: I would perform a thorough examination of the chatbot’s functionality, including testing its ability to handle various inputs, understand and process user requests, provide accurate and relevant responses, and handle unexpected or edge cases. I would also test the chatbot’s integration with other systems, its performance, and its error handling and logging capabilities.